Inside Tesla’s Model 3 Factory

On a Model 3 physique line on a Tuesday afternoon in early June, everything is still. Tesla Inc. is usually entrance off a week of downtime during that workers combined a new prolongation line, softened movement after a glow in the paint shop, and overhauled machines opposite a factory. But even after the changes, there are kinks to work out. 

Suddenly, dozens of robots snap into frenzied action, picking adult doorway panels, welding window pillars, holding measurements, and on and on. This robotic dance is a abdominal illustration of what Tesla arch executive Elon Musk has dubbed “Alien Dreadnought,” a formula name for a bureau that evokes an early 20th century warship, though with extraterrestrials.

The stakes couldn’t be aloft for Tesla, that is sprinting to furnish a Model 3 in quantities good adequate to spin a profit. But so far, a plant’s choreography has been choppy. The upsurge is constantly interrupted while robots and humans are trained, retrained, or substituted out. If Tesla can’t make this dance work, it will be remembered as a lesson in a dangers of undiscerning merriment for automation. Success, on a other hand, could transform a automobile industry. 

Tesla has consistently missed a prolongation targets given deliveries of a Model 3 began final July. The initial vital obstacle was during Tesla’s Gigafactory in Reno, Nevada, where program defects caused robots to fail, definition that thousands of cells had to be pieced together by hand. Production has usually softened given then, and Musk told shareholders on Tuesday that a association is on lane to accommodate a thought of 5,000 cars a week by a finish of June. 

Tesla says there isn’t any singular problem negligence prolongation down now. Instead, a complicated faith on automation and new prolongation methods have combined a universe of smaller problems that must each be addressed individually. Musk’s explain is that once a routine is tuned, a company will set a new customary for speed, precision, and scalability in manufacturing. 

Stamping Tesla uses a high-end Shuler servo stamping press to spin hulk rolls of steel into Model 3 physique parts. There are usually 35 such presses in automobile prolongation worldwide, and Tesla says it is a initial in a U.S. The equipment has authorised Tesla to holder out singular parts, like a Model 3 front fender, that engineers say has larger abyss in a singular square of hammered steel than any other buffer in production. 

Stamping was a prolongation bottleneck on Tesla’s prior dual cars—the Model S sedan and Model X SUV—and Musk didn’t wish a repeat. The high-volume servo press is a prolongation splurge—one of many that Tesla hopes to replenish by high volumes and coherence for a designers.


Body Assembly Putting together a pieces of a car’s physique is an area that all automakers automate to varying degrees. However even state-of-the-art factories tend to rest on people to ride tools and load them onto a machines. Car tools are packaged together for storage and shipping, and picking them behind adult is formidable but tellurian fingers.

This is one area that Tesla competence have left too far, too fast. In April, Musk concurred that he had to slice out a formidable circuit complement for tools and replace it with workers. Various robots via a line met a identical predestine or had to be reprogrammed. Even so, Tesla says a Model 3 physique line is now 95 percent automated, including the transfer, loading, and welding of parts.   

Seat Factory Car manufactures hatred seats. They’re vapid to make and need opposite skills and materials than a rest of a car. It’s easier to outsource, and no vital manufacturer does it all themselves. But relying on suppliers got Tesla into difficulty with a Model X, when a engineers designed an intensely difficult-to-make “monopost” chair and an impossible-to-hit timeline. Problems with suppliers set prolongation behind by months, and Musk motionless he wasn’t going to put adult with it again. 

In usually a few years, Tesla built a possess chair bureau to hoop all of its seat production. These are a initial images published from a new factory, that Tesla says already has some-more ability than it needs for a 2018 prolongation goals—with copiousness of space for additional expansion. 


Tesla says Elon Musk privately helped pattern a extruded aluminum bottom of a Model X chair above. With a seatbelt housed wholly within a backrest, a bottom contingency be means to catch extensive force. 

Quality Control Tesla says it has 47 robots deployed in scanning stations via a physique line. They measure 1,900 points in any Model 3 to compare them to pattern specs—with a pointing of 0.15 millimeters. Torque measurements are also automatically available for any shaft that’s fastened. During a final exam drives on a track, sound recorders measure squeaks, rattles and breeze and road noise that a exam motorist competence miss. All of this information is stored with any car’s singular Vehicle Identification Number, or VIN, so use centers can snippet any emanate behind to a base means in a factory. The thought is that Tesla will be means to improve its cars, even after they’re in a customer’s driveway. 



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